For reasons to be discussed later, limitations in their mathematical framework initially made the theory applicable only under special and limited conditions.
Mind, Soul and Person: The Attempt of "Intensional" Logic: Metaphysical Theories of a Dualistic View. The Theory proposed by John C.
Theories of a Monistic View. A Special Kind of Materialistic Monism: Intrinsic Limitations of the Functionalist Approach. Dual Theories of interpreting the Mind-Body Relationship.
The Localization of the Mind. Intentional Theory of Knowledge. The Mind is Immaterial and subsists "Post-Mortem". Dual Theory of the Mind and Spirituality of the Soul. Immaterial Intellect and the Brain. The Soul as a Spiritual Substance that survives after Death.
Cognitive Sciences and Dual Theory: Perspectives to understand the Mind-Body Relationship. Logic of Discovery vs. The problem of the relationship between the mind and the body, is one that has always fascinated humanity across all cultures and in all times because of the many implications brought about by such an issue, not least the religious and existential ones.
At present the issue is becoming more ample because of the progress of modern science and of its capacity to comprehend, with its methods, the psychical functions, their neural basis, their behavioural manifestations, and also the artificial reproducibility, at least partial, of such manifestations and, at least in perspective, the genetic modifiability of the neurophysiological basis of the same psychical functions.
This way has been especially followed by a number of scientists. However, the philosophical context of dualism leaves unsolved those difficulties, that in the Middle Ages had already led the Magisterium of the Church to find the vision of St.
Thomas Aquinas to be more congenial to the content of faith, a vision that we shall discuss here in this paper.
Some Epistemological Observations 1. The Inadequacy of an Epistemological Reduction of the Problem. Before dealing with the main metaphysical theories of the mind-body relationship that have followed on from each other throughout the course of the history of Western thought, a logic and terminological introduction, which involves profound theoretical problems, is necessary.
When pre-modern thinkers were dealing with such a relationship, they generally would not refer to it with the expression "mind-body", but rather "soul-body.
In the Middle Ages, and especially for Scholastic philosophy, the mens represented the source and the common root of the two main faculties of the human rational soul: In this sense, the problem of the mind-body relationship is presented in a double way: Depending on whether these two entities become identified, or distinguished, and also depending on the way in which they are distinguished, we have varying metaphysical theories concerning the mind-body relationship.
However, when the problem is dealt with in terms of the "mind-body" relationship, in many texts it is to be understood as being restricted to the first of the two problems above that is, to the psychological one.
As we know from the history of philosophy, the notion of mind used by the English philosopher was totally devoid of any ontological foundation, as was in general any other notion of "substance," whether material or immaterial.
This reduction should be at least declared, so that it is clear to those using such theories, and, above all, provided that other methods of investigation on the same subject are not excluded.
On the contrary a reduction that "in principle" excludes the metaphysical dimension of the problem has to be judged an a priori assessment. When studying our problem, one of the major conquests obtained in this century by logic and analytical philosophy, has been the demonstration of the logic-linguistic inconsistency of any epistemologically and linguistically reductionist approach to the mind-body relationship cf.
The fundamental reason for the impossibility of this epistemological reduction has been clear since the end of the past century, thanks to the work of Franz Brentano He rediscovered the irreducibly "intentional" nature of each psychical act as such, opposed to the Kantian formalism in the treatment of the states of conscience.
We do not "just think", but, rather, we always "think perceive, want, etc. The theorists of identity hoped they could resolve the mind-body problem by proposing a presumed "synonymy" between the two modes, the "psychical" and the "neurophysiologic," to denote the same object the neural eventthat would imply the " substitutivity " of the one with the other.
This substitutivity, based on the identity of the reference used that is on the equivalence of the "extension" of the termsis precisely what is forbidden in an "intentional" logic. According to such an axiom, two classes or in a weaker form, two collections related to two distinct predicates that contain the same elements, in such a way to make equivalent the extensions of the relative predicates, represent the same class or collection.
From here it follows the reciprocal substitutivity of the corresponding predicates.The Bolsheviks had their own ten commandments and, like the church, they also mocked their opponents. The totalitarianism of the church belongs to the past but if the church should ever regain its former power, its atrocities would probably be repeated.
What is The Matrix? School or prison, depending on your chosen perspective. On the one hand, it is a hyperdimensional teaching system accelerating your rate of spiritual evolution by providing you with catalytic experiences in response to your thoughts, emotions, and spiritual composition.
Plato's allegory of the cave is one of the best-known, most insightful attempts to explain the nature of reality.
The cave represents the state of . The problem of the relationship between the mind and the body, is one that has always fascinated humanity across all cultures and in all times because of the many implications brought about by such an issue, not least the religious and existential ones.
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