A bomb goes off in the heart of seventeenth-century Madrid. The bomb kills only twenty people because the lack of mass transportation deprives terrorists of deadlier targets.
A bomb goes off in the heart of seventeenth-century Madrid. The bomb kills only twenty people because the lack of mass transportation deprives terrorists of deadlier targets. The media are limited in technology and cannot even imagine what real-time coverage would mean.
The global impact is likely modest, because a limited number of actors are connected to Madrid economically and are therefore insulated from its travails.
However, globalization is not the only protagonist in this story. In The Petroleum Triangle, Yetiv delves into the Middle east terrorism oil among oil, globalization and terrorism to understand how these three elements have become interwoven in a fabric of resentment, violence and fear, to the detriment of world security.
Yetiv, a professor at Old Dominion University who has extensively researched the importance of oil for U. The book begins with a historical analysis of the relevance of oil in shaping U. When the producing states started to control oil by sidelining global companies, political considerations meant that energy security had to include the interests of more powerful and capricious players.
Oil money was pivotal to funding the Afghan resistance, which counted among its ranks many Pakistanis educated in Saudi-funded madrassas.
Oil money was also decisive for the rise of the Taliban, who also studied in the Saudi-sponsored schools and offered al-Qaeda a safe heaven for its operations in Afghanistan. Moreover, Yetiv argues, the United States would have tacitly tolerated the Taliban regime, in exchange for their consent to a U.
In his mind, oil was instrumental in magnifying U. In fact, the Saudi rulers, by allowing U. More broadly, oil has turned out to be crucial in financing terrorist networks and activities.
Petro-dollars directly and indirectly financed terrorism and weapons of mass destruction through opaque connections among illegal organizations, states and international institutions.
Complex financial transactions hawala and charities have provided the channels through which petrodollars have reached their final destination. As many scholars have shown, there are powerful connections between oil and the lack of democracy, and oil money helps to support those regimes that al-Qaeda rejects and fight against, such as Saudi Arabia.
And the United States, in turn, supports the Saudi government because of its vast oil wealth. Oil is not the only element in this story. There is also globalization, which has increased world demand for energy, multiplying its geostrategic importance and the relevance of the Middle East.
However, to address this threat, the United States has spent billions of dollars, thus forgoing the opportunity to use the money for internal needs.
It is time for Washington to distinguish between the real and perceived threat from al-Qaeda. Even more important, the United States needs to reduce its dependence on oil and foster energy policies that improve its efficient use and develop alternatives.
In The Petroleum Triangle, Yetiv moves one step forward, connecting terrorism with the urgency for new energy policies. By sketching the mechanisms that petroleum has been able to trigger, the author indicates the exorbitant costs of U.
The funds that have been employed in defence and security might have been channeled into other national priorities such as economic growth, reduction of the national debt and other domestic activities.
Tremendous strategic and diplomatic effort also had to be exerted in order to maintain energy security and fight al-Qaeda. This time and zeal might have been utilized for other purposes. Yetiv deserves credit for a very well-researched analysis.
However, it is easy to lose the thread of his argument. These issues are necessarily just sketched and do not seem to be linked strictly to oil and globalization.
Despite the validity of his argument, a better structure and a better selection of supporting facts and analyses would have reinforced his main points.
When the author tries to tie the decreasing influence of al-Qaeda within the Muslim world to oil, it seems rather forced, since U. Moreover, a whole chapter is dedicated to rising anti-Americanism. Although the exploitation of oil resources by the United States could be a contributing factor in explaining resentment against America, it does not seem to be the only explanation for so complex and multifaceted a phenomenon.The Red Line agreement governed the development of Middle East oil for the next two decades.
The Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement of was based on negotiations between the United States and Britain over the control of Middle Eastern oil.
Since the 9/11 attacks of , U.S. policy has included an emphasis on counter-terrorism.
The U.S. has diplomatic relations with all countries in the Middle East except for Iran, The Red Line agreement governed the development of Middle East oil for the next two decades. The Anglo-American Petroleum Agreement of was based on.
View the latest Middle East news from Israel, Iran, Iraq, Syria and other Middle Eastern countries on regardbouddhiste.com The Middle East Policy Council is a nonprofit organization whose mission is to contribute to American understanding of the political, economic and cultural issues that affect U.S.
interests in the Middle East. The Middle East is the most militarized region in the world and most arms sales head there. A suppressed people that sees US influence as a major root cause of the current problems in the Middle East has led to a rise in Islamic militancy, acts of terrorism and anti-west sentiment, anti-US in particular.
Specifically, he excluded oil infrastructure in the Middle East as a legitimate target, arguing that the wealth it generates would be essential to fund the pan-Islamic super state that he hoped to create.9 His edict limited attacks to personnel, primarily Westerners, working in the oil industry in the Middle East.