Marco polo ibn battuta essay

Its surrounding prefecture extends west halfway across the province and is hilly and mountainous. In its mountainous interior, it borders Longyan to the southwest and Sanming to the northwest. Climate[ edit ] The city features a humid subtropical climate.

Marco polo ibn battuta essay

History[ edit ] On this map by Abraham OrteliusCataio is located inland of China referring to today's Guangdong and Chequan Zhejiangand borders on " Thebet " in the southwest and " Camul " in the west.

There is also Mangi between "Cataio" and Xanton Shandong. The objects in "Cataio" are based on Marco Polo's description and include the capital CambaluXanduand a marble bridge The term Cathay came from the name for the Khitans.

A form of the name Cathai is attested in a Uyghur Manichaean document circa The name's currency in the Muslim world survived the replacement of the Khitan Liao dynasty with the Jurchen Jin dynasty in the early 12th century.

However, its use by Turkic speakers within China, such as the Uyghursis considered pejorative by the Chinese authority who had tried to ban it. The name occurs in the writings of Giovanni da Pian del Carpine c.

Europeans in Medieval ChinaSino-Roman relationsSericaand Daqin The division of China into northern and southern parts ruled by, in succession, the Liao, Jin and Mongol Yuan empires in the north, and the Song dynasty in the south, ended in the late 13th century with the conquest of southern China by the Mongol Yuan Empire.


While Central Asia had long known China under names similar to Cathay, that country was known to the peoples of South-East Asia and India under names similar to China cf. Cina in modern Malay.

Meanwhile, in China itself, people usually referred to their nation state based on the name of the ruling dynasty, e. Therefore, it would not be uncommon for 16th-century maps to apply the label "China" just to the coastal region already well known to the Europeans e.

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During his first 15 years in China — Matteo Ricci formed a strong suspicion that Marco Polo's "Cathay" is simply the "Tatar" i.

Ricci supported his arguments by numerous correspondences between Marco Polo's accounts and his own observations: The River " Yangtze " divides the empire into two halves, with 9 provinces "kingdoms" south of the river and 6 to the north; Marco Polo's "Cathay" was just south of " Tartary ", and Ricci learned that there was no other country between the Ming Empire and "Tartary" i.

People in China had not heard of any place called "Cathay". Most importantly, when the Jesuits first arrived to Beijingthey also met a number of "Mohammedans" or "Arabian Turks" — visitors or immigrants from the Muslim countries to the west of China, who told Ricci that now they were living in the Great Cathay.

This all made them quite convinced that Cathay is indeed China.

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This was stated e. Jodocus HondiusIn retrospect, the Central Asian Muslim informants' idea of the Ming China being a heavily Christian country may be explained by numerous similarities between Christian and Buddhist ecclesiastical rituals — from having sumptuous statuary and ecclesiastical robes to Gregorian chant — which would make the two religions appear externally similar to a Muslim merchant.

Inin Cialishe, too, became convinced that his destination is China, as he met the members of a caravan returning from Beijing to Kashgar, who told them about staying in the same Beijing inn with Portuguese Jesuits.

In fact, those were the same very "Saracens" who had, a few months earlier, confirmed it to Ricci that they were in "Cathay". Naturally, Cambalu and Xandu are shown in Cathay, while Shuntien Beijing is in China Ricci's and de Gois' conclusion was not, however, completely convincing for everybody in Europe yet.

Samuel Purchaswho in published an English translation of Pantoja's letter and Ricci's account, thought that perhaps, Cathay still can be found somewhere north of China. The borders drawn on some of these maps would first make Cathay the northeastern section of China e. Duyvendak hypothesized that it was the ignorance of the fact that "China" is the mighty "Cathay" of Marco Polo that allowed the Dutch governor of East Indies Jan Pieterszoon Coen to embark on an "unfortunate" for the Dutch policy of treating the Ming Empire as "merely another 'oriental' kingdom".

Golius knew no Chinese, but he was familiar with Zij-i Ilkhania work by the Persian astronomer Nasir al-Din al-Tusicompleted inin which he described the Chinese "Cathayan" calendar. The names of the 24 solar terms matched as well.

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The story, soon published by Martini in the "Additamentum" to his Atlas of China, seemed to have finally convinced most European scholars that China and Cathay were the same.The history of the Great Wall of China began when fortifications built by various states during the Spring and Autumn (– BC) and Warring States periods (– BC) were connected by the first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, to protect his newly founded Qin dynasty (– BC) against incursions by nomads from Inner walls were built of rammed earth, constructed using.

Global Hist. & Geo. – Jan. ’06 [4] 16 Historians value the writings of Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta because they (1) serve as primary sources about trade and. 1 “Archaeologists Revise Historical Interpretations After New Discovery” “New Research Sheds Light on Causes of World War I” “Computer Technology Helps Reconstruct Ancient Languages” These headlines indicate that the understanding.

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Marco polo ibn battuta essay

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Quanzhou proper lies on a spit of land between the estuaries of the Jin and Luo rivers as they flow into Quanzhou Bay on the Taiwan surrounding prefecture extends west halfway across the province and is hilly and mountainous.

History of the Great Wall of China - Wikipedia

This is a gem. A wonderful, un-self-consciously poetic translation of a major historical record. If you are interested in the history of Central Asia, the Mongols, or Genghis Khan this is a must-read book.

Quanzhou - Wikipedia