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Life Expectancy Essay Life Expectancy Essay Life expectancy is a measurement defined as the number of years a person, at a given age and within a given population, can expect to live. Calculations of life expectancy come from a life table, a demographic measurement tool that describes the pattern and level of mortality for a given population, typically on a cross-sectional basis; that is, as a snapshot in time.
While any age can serve as a basis to determine life expectancy, it is the expectation of life at birth represented within a life table as e0 most commonly presented because it is a summary indicator of mortality conditions across all ages for a given population, is unaffected by the overall age structure of the population, and, as such, is useful in cross-population comparisons.
Occasionally, life expectancy at age 1 actually exceeds that at birth, if infant mortality rates are extraordinarily high within a given population.
Life expectancy usually declines with age. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, in life expectancy at birth for both men and women of all races in the United States was At age 65, life expectancy was These calculations imply a year-old could expect to live until 83, a year-old until age 86, and an year-old until age When the first reliable U.
Much of the increase in life expectancy resulted from decreases in infant and child mortality, which reflects systematic increases in public health interventions such as the development of sewer systems that helped reduce the spread of infectious diseases. As history suggests, social conditions affect life expectancy as do demographic and socioeconomic factors such as gender, race, income, and geography.
These factors create a range of life expectancies between populations as well as within a given population. Disparities in mortality rates usually result from unequal development among countries, whereas within a given population disparities reflect social inequality or stratification.
Life expectancy currently differs dramatically between developed and developing countries, the latter of whose populations lack public health resources and remain subject to high levels of infectious disease.
Although the United States has one of the highest overall life expectancies in the world, it actually ranks low among other industrialized countries.
Despite spending more on health care than any other industrialized country, the United States ranked 29th in life expectancy in and 43rd worldwide for infant mortality in Ina study conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health found that the gap between highest and lowest life expectancy among subgroups in the United States is over 35 years.
This considerable gap reflects disparities that result from a combination of socioeconomic factors, including race, gender, income distribution, and geographic location, as well as phenomena such as widely varying rates of HIV infection and homicide and behavioral and cultural barriers to health, leading to increased rates of diabetes, the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and alcohol-related deaths within specific populations.
Further, this gap speaks to structural inequalities that limit access to health insurance and quality medical care, as well as the lack of social policies aimed at reducing socioeconomic differences. In addition to demographic and socioeconomic factors that increase the range of life expectancies, increased overall life expectancy poses new challenges to populations where increased longevity may not necessarily correlate to improvements in quality of life.
As populations age throughout the world, the prevalence of chronic illness also increases, and many public health organizations now distinguish between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, the latter defined as the number of years an individual can expect to live a life free from disability, dependency on others, or disease.
The prevalence of chronic illness among older populations raises issues such as the increased costs of medical care, the complications of long-term care, and strain placed on both private and public resources.
Without the development of public health care initiatives that can reduce risk factors for chronic illnesses or the adoption of social policies that are capable of buffering the negative health effects of structural inequality, disparities in life expectancy will remain a social and public health concern.
National Center for Health Statistics. Retrieved March 29, https: Murray, and Alan D. Global Programme on Evidence for Health Policy. Iandiorio, and Majid Ezzati. This example Life Expectancy Essay is published for educational and informational purposes only.
If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services.Citizens of Ethiopia and Yemen,which are two of the world's poorest countries, have an average life expectancy of years. Citizens of Japan, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden, in contrast, have an average life span of more than 75 years.
Life Expectancy Essay Sample. What is life expectancy? Life expectancy (ex) is the number of years that a person can expect to live, on average, in a given population.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) produces life expectancy statistics for the United Kingdom . Life Expectancy and Public Health Essay. examine the effects on life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) of changes in six major behavioral risk factors over the period: smoking, obesity, heavy alcohol use, and unsafe use of motor vehicles, firearms, and poisonous substances.
This essay will assess two solutions to low life expectancy in the developping world. First, the. promotion and improvement of the health care system and infrastructure, then the development of appropriate education programs to instruct and educate the population of those third world countries.
Life Expectancy Essay Examples. An Essay on Life Expectancy. 1, words. 3 pages. Research Models for Analyzing Life Expectancy and the GDP. 1, words. 3 pages. The Average Life Expectancy in Relation to the Economic Status. words.
2 pages. Lifestyle Choices as a Factor on Improving Longevity. Life expectancy summarises in one statistic number the structure of a society. There are some social and economic relevant factors that affect life expectancy in general, and in the case of developing countries the index is lower than the global average.