I this day left London, charged with dispatches from the Secretary of State's office, and from the Admiralty, relative to the embarkation of that part of the marines and convicts intended for Botany Bay; and on the evening of the seventh, after travelling two days of the most incessant rain I ever remember, arrived at Plymouth, where the Charlotte and Friendship transports were in readiness to receive them. General Collins, commander in chief at that port, lost no time in carrying the orders I had brought into execution: But the next day being ushered in with a very heavy gale of wind, made it impracticable to remove the convicts from on board the Dunkirk prisonship, where they were confined.
Ship's chronometer from HMS Beagle The main purpose of the expedition was to conduct a hydrographic survey of the coasts of the southern part of South America. This was a continuation and correction of the work of previous surveys, in order to produce accurate nautical charts showing navigational and sea depth information for the navy and for commerce.
An Admiralty memorandum set out the detailed instructions. The first requirement was to resolve disagreements in the earlier surveys about the longitude of Rio de Janeirowhich was essential as the base point for meridian distances. The accurate marine chronometers needed to determine longitude had only become affordable since ; Beagle carried 22 chronometers to allow corrections.
The ship was to stop at specified points for four-day rating of the chronometers and to check them by astronomical observations: It was important to survey the extent of the Abrolhos Archipelago reefs, shown incorrectly in Roussin's survey, then proceed to Rio de Janeiro to decide the exact longitude of Villegagnon Island.
The west coast was then to be surveyed as far north as time and resources permitted. The commander would then determine his own route west: Then Beagle was to proceed to Point Venus,Tahiti and on to Port JacksonAustralia which were known points to verify the chronometers.
Continued records of tides and meteorological conditions were also required. An additional suggestion was for a geological survey of a circular coral atoll in the Pacific Ocean including its profile and of tidal flows, to investigate the formation of such coral reefs.
When Impression de voyage ship's boat was taken by native FuegiansFitzRoy took some of them hostage. After their return to Devonport dockyard on 14 October Captain King retired.
He made an agreement with the owner of a small merchant-vessel to take himself and five others back to South America, but a kind uncle heard of this and contacted the Admiralty.
Soon afterwards FitzRoy heard that he was to be appointed commander of HMS Chanticleer to go to Tierra del Fuegobut due to her poor condition Beagle was substituted. Beagle was commissioned on 4 July under the command of Captain Robert FitzRoy, who promptly spared no expense in having Beagle extensively refitted.
Beagle was immediately taken into dock for extensive rebuilding and refitting. Additional sheathing to the hull added about seven tons to her burthen and perhaps fifteen to her displacement.
FitzRoy obtained five examples of the Sympiesometera kind of mercury -free barometer patented by Alexander Adie and favoured by FitzRoy as giving the accurate readings required by the Admiralty. This elite disdained research done for money and felt that natural philosophy was for gentlemennot tradesmen.
The officer class of the Army and Navy provided a way to ascend this hierarchy; it was commonly the Ship's Surgeon who collected specimens on voyages, and Robert McCormick had secured the official position of surgeon on Beagle after taking part in earlier expeditions and studying natural history.
A sizeable collection had considerable social value, attracting wide public interest, and McCormick aspired to fame as an exploring naturalist. McCormick lacked expertise in geology, and had to attend to his duties on the ship. Henslow described the position "more as a companion than a mere collector", but this was an assurance that FitzRoy would treat his guest as a gentleman naturalist.
Several other ships at this period carried unpaid civilians as naturalists. Henslow briefly thought of going, but his wife "looked so miserable" that he quickly dropped the idea.
Don't put on any modest doubts or fears about your disqualifications for I assure you I think you are the very man they are in search of. With Wedgwood's help, Darwin's father was persuaded to relent and fund his son's expedition, and on Thursday 1 September Darwin wrote accepting Peacock's offer.
Darwin went to London anyway, and next morning met FitzRoy who explained that he had promised the place to his friend Mr. Chester, possibly the novelist Harry Chester but Chester had turned it down in a letter received not five minutes before Darwin arrived.
FitzRoy emphasised the difficulties including cramped conditions and plain food. They talked and dined together, and soon found each other agreeable. He half-seriously told Darwin later that, as "an ardent disciple of Lavater ", he had nearly rejected Darwin on the phrenological basis that the shape or physiognomy of Darwin's nose indicated a lack of determination.
For the first time he saw the "very small" cramped ship, met the officers,  and was glad to get a large cabin, shared with the assistant surveyor John Lort Stokes. On Friday Darwin rushed back to London, " miles in 24 hours",  and on via Cambridge to arrive in Shrewsbury on 22 September for a last quick visit to family and friends, leaving for London on 2 October.
Before they left England, FitzRoy gave Darwin a copy of the first volume of Lyell's Principles of Geology which explained features as the outcome of a gradual process taking place over extremely long periods of time.
Far from wanting this,   Darwin's concern was to maintain control over his collection. He was even reluctant to be on the Admiralty's books for victuals until he got assurances from FitzRoy and Beaufort that this would not affect his rights to assign his specimens.Impression Du Voyage by Oscar Wilde..
THE sea was sapphire coloured and the sky Burned like a heated opal through the air We hoisted sail the wind was blowing fair For the blue lands that. Page. Christopher Columbus - The first voyage: The ships for the first voyage—the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María—were fitted out at Palos, on the Tinto River in Spain.
Consortia put together by a royal treasury official and composed mainly of Genoese and Florentine bankers in Sevilla (Seville) provided at least 1,, maravedis to outfit the expedition, and Columbus supplied more than a third.
A New Voyage to Carolina; Containing the Exact Description and Natural History of That Country: Together with the Present State Thereof. And a Journal of a Thousand Miles, Travel'd Thro' Several Nations of Indians. Giving a Particular Account of Their Customs, Manners, &c.
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Sensation furtive et profane de celui qui a l’impression de ne pas avoir tout compris ce qui lui arrivait.
je suis incité à prendre la route dans la grande tradition du compagnonnage de métiers. La notion de voyage est récurrente dans notre cheminement avec ses trois versants: d’où l’on vient, où l’on est, où va-t-on.