An introduction to the history and the culture of jerusalem

Jerusalem has a special place in the hearts of the GAFCON movement as it was the location of our very first conference back in

An introduction to the history and the culture of jerusalem

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It begins among those people who occupied the area lying between the river Nile and Mesopotamia. Surrounded by ancient seats of culture in Egypt and Babyloniaby the deserts of Arabiaand by the highlands of Asia Minorthe land of Canaan roughly corresponding to modern Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan and Lebanon was a meeting place of civilizations.

According to the Hebrew BibleJews descend from the ancient people of Israel who settled in the land of Canaan between the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.

Hecht Museum The Book of Genesis, chapters 25—50, tells the story of Jacob and his twelve sons, who left Canaan during a severe famine and settled in Goshen of northern Egypt.

The Egyptian Pharaonic government allegedly enslaved their descendants, although there is no independent evidence of this having occurred. According to the Bible, the Hebrews miraculously emigrated out of Egypt an event known as the Exodusand returned to their ancestral homeland in Canaan.

According to the Bible, after their emancipation from Egyptian slavery, the people of Israel wandered around and lived in the Sinai desert for a span of forty years before conquering Canaan in BCE under the command of Joshua.

After entering Canaan, portions of the land were given to each of the twelve tribes of Israel. However, archaeology reveals a different story of the origins of the Jewish people: The archaeological evidence of the largely indigenous origins of Israel in Canaan, not Egypt, is "overwhelming" and leaves "no room for an Exodus from Egypt or a year pilgrimage through the Sinai wilderness".

Almost the sole marker distinguishing the "Israelite" villages from Canaanite sites is an absence of pig bones, although whether this can be taken as an ethnic marker or is due to other factors remains a matter of dispute.

During the reign of David, the already existing city of Jerusalem became the national and spiritual capital of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.

Upon his death, a civil war erupted between the ten northern Israelite tribes, and the tribes of Judah Simeon was absorbed into Judah and Benjamin in the south.


The nation split into the Kingdom of Israel in the north, and the Kingdom of Judah in the south. No commonly accepted historical record accounts for the ultimate fate of the ten northern tribes, sometimes referred to as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israelalthough speculation abounds. Babylonian captivity Deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem and Solomon's temple After revolting against the new dominant power and an ensuing siege, the Kingdom of Judah was conquered by the Babylonian army in BCE and the First Temple was destroyed.

The elite of the kingdom and many of their people were exiled to Babylon, where the religion developed outside their traditional temple. Others fled to Egypt. After the fall of Jerusalem, Babylonia modern day Iraqwould become the focus of Judaism for more than a thousand years.

The two most famous academies were the Pumbedita Academy and the Sura Academy. Major yeshivot were also located at Nehardea and Mahuza. After a few generations and with the conquest of Babylonia in BC by the Persian Empiresome adherents led by prophets Ezra and Nehemiahreturned to their homeland and traditional practices.

Other Judeans [13] did not permanently return and remained in exile and developed somewhat independently outside of the Land of Israel, especially following the Muslim conquests of the Middle East in the 7th century CE.

After the death of the last Jewish prophet and while still under Persian rule, the leadership of the Jewish people passed into the hands of five successive generations of zugot "pairs of" leaders.

They flourished first under the Persians and then under the Greeks. As a result, the Pharisees and Sadducees were formed.

After his demise, and the division of Alexander's empire among his generals, the Seleucid Kingdom was formed. Greek culture was spread eastwards by the Alexandrian conquests. The Levant was not immune to this cultural spread.

During this time, currents of Judaism were influenced by Hellenistic philosophy developed from the 3rd century BCE, notably the Jewish diaspora in Alexandriaculminating in the compilation of the Septuagint.

An important advocate of the symbiosis of Jewish theology and Hellenistic thought is Philo.

An introduction to the history and the culture of jerusalem

Hasmonean dynasty A deterioration of relations between hellenized Jews and orthodox Jews led the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes to impose decrees banning certain Jewish religious rites and traditions.Jerusalem - History: The earliest surveys and excavations in Jerusalem were conducted in the 19th century, mainly by European Christians such as the French scholars Louis Félicien de Saulcy and Charles Clermont-Ganneau and the Englishman Sir Charles Warren, who were inspired by the wish to identify locations mentioned in the Bible.

The Palestine Exploration Fund, founded in , sponsored . We are delighted to welcome Ashgate Publishing and Gower books into the Taylor & Francis Group. Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and regardbouddhiste.comgh Judaism as a religion first appears in Greek records during the Hellenistic period ( BCE – 31 BCE) and the earliest mention of Israel is inscribed on the Merneptah Stele dated – BCE, religious literature tells the story of.

Jerusalem: Jerusalem, ancient city of the Middle East that since has been wholly under the rule of the State of Israel. Long an object of veneration and conflict, Jerusalem has been governed by an extended series of dynasties and states over centuries.

Learn more about the city’s history and culture . Encyclopedia of Jewish and Israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from anti-Semitism to Zionism.

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