Reconstruction R econstruction was the period in American history immediately after the Civil War. The physical rebuilding of Southern cities, ports, railroads, and farms that had been destroyed during the war was only a small part of the Reconstruction process.
The original Northern objective in the Civil War was the preservation of the Union—a war aim with which virtually everybody in the free states agreed. As the fighting progressed, the Lincoln government Origins of Reconstruction The national debate over Reconstruction began during the Civil War.
In Decemberless than a year after he issued the Emancipation ProclamationPres. To Lincoln, the plan was an attempt to weaken the Confederacy rather than a blueprint for the postwar South. It was put into operation in parts of the Union-occupied Confederacy, but none of the new governments achieved broad local support.
In Congress enacted and Lincoln pocket vetoed the Wade-Davis Billwhich proposed to delay the formation of new Southern governments until a majority of voters had taken a loyalty oath. Johnson offered a pardon to all Southern whites except Confederate leaders and wealthy planters although most of these subsequently received individual pardonsrestoring their political rights and all property except slaves.
He also outlined how new state governments would be created.
Apart from the requirement that they abolish slavery, repudiate secession, and abrogate the Confederate debt, these governments were granted a free hand in managing their affairs. Andrew Johnson, photographed by Mathew Brady. Library of Congress, Washington, D. Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Sen.
Charles Sumner from Massachusetts called for the establishment of new Southern governments based on equality before the law and universal male suffrage. But the more numerous moderate Republicans hoped to work with Johnson while modifying his program.
The first extended the life of an agency Congress had created in to oversee the transition from slavery to freedom. The second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens, who were to enjoy equality before the law.
Thaddeus Stevens, photo by Mathew Brady. Arguably the most important addition to the Constitution other than the Bill of Rightsthe amendment constituted a profound change in federal-state relations.
Congress decided to begin Reconstruction anew. The Reconstruction Acts of divided the South into five military districts and outlined how new governments, based on manhood suffrage without regard to race, were to be established.
Thus began the period of Radical or Congressional Reconstruction, which lasted until the end of the last Southern Republican governments in Three groups made up Southern Republicanism.By the end of the Civil War, the South was in a state of political upheaval, social disorder, and economic decay.
The Union’s tactics of total war destroyed southern crops, plantations, and entire cities, and hundreds of thousands of emancipated slaves rushed to Union lines as their masters fled the oncoming Union army. After the Civil War had been fought and black people were granted the right to vote as true citizens of the United States, there were many people in the South who still believed that the black people should not have the same type of equality as white people.
Civil War Reconstruction summary: There are two basic areas of topics in regards to The Reconstruction Era. One covers a period from and is as broad as the U.S. History in its entirety and the other sticks mainly to .
During the period of Reconstruction, which lasted from to , Congress passed and enforced laws that promoted civil and political rights for African Americans across the South. The rebuilding of the South after the Civil War is called the Reconstruction.
The Reconstruction lasted from to The purpose of the Reconstruction . The result was a costly and bloody civil war. Almost as many Americans were killed in the Civil War as in all the nation's other wars combined. After four years of fighting, the Union was restored through the force of arms.